Apple cider vinegar (ACV) may promote weight loss by lowering appetite, lowering triglycerides, and raising high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in people who are overweight, but more study is needed. Vinegar contains acetic acid and is a product of fermentation with possible therapeutic properties, including potential lipid- and glucose-lowering effects.1,2
Khezri et al. conducted a small (n=39) randomized controlled trial in overweight (BMI >27 kg/m2) individuals.3 Participants were assigned to take part in a calorie-restricted diet with or without co-administration of 30 ml of ACV per day for 12 weeks. Those in the ACV arm had significantly reduced body weight (-4 ± 2.5 kg vs -2.3 ± 1.6 kg, p=0.01), body mass index (-1.52 ± 0.9 vs -0.89 ± 0.6, p=0.01), hip circumference (-5.9 ± 3.71 vs -3.37 ± 2.49, p=0.03), and appetite score (p<0.00) compared to controls. In addition, plasma triglycerides were significantly lowered (-58.1 ± 16 vs +45 ± 19.8, p=0.001) and HDL-C was significantly increased (2.95 ± 4 vs 0.68 ± 3, p=0.04) in the ACV group compared to the control group.
Cheng et al. conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the effectiveness of vinegar consumption of any type on glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes (total n=317).4 Secondary analyses examined the effect of vinegar on lipids. Although small sample sizes and heterogeneity among the studies limited the generalizability of their results, the meta-analysis found significant reductions in fasting blood glucose, hemoglobin A1C, total cholesterol (TC), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) among participants consuming vinegar compared to controls who did not.
Other animal studies5–7 and small human studies8 have reported a reduction in triglycerides associated with vinegar consumption, but others have not.9 Other studies10,11 have demonstrated contradictory results. Beheshti et al. studied 19 patients with hyperlipidemia who agreed to consume 30 ml of ACV twice a day over eight weeks.10 TC, LDL-C, and triglycerides trended significantly lower over the interval. When men and women were analyzed separately, only the men had statistically significant reductions. In a larger randomized controlled trial by Panetta et al. 114 participants consumed either 30 ml of ACV or placebo for eight weeks.11 The primary endpoint (change in HDL-C between baseline and measurement at eight weeks) was not significantly different between the vinegar or the control group. Secondary endpoints (including HDL-C and triglycerides) were also not significantly different with the consumption of vinegar compared to placebo. Large randomized controlled trials are needed to confirm the lipid-lowering effect of ACV.
- Budak NH, Aykin E, Seydim AC, Greene AK, Guzel-Seydim ZB. Functional properties of vinegar. J Food Sci. 2014;79(5):R757-64.
- Seo H, Jeon B-D, Ryu S. Persimmon vinegar ripening with the mountain-cultivated ginseng ingestion reduces blood lipids and lowers inflammatory cytokines in obese adolescents. J Exerc Nutrition Biochem. 2015;19(1):1-10.
- Khezri SS, Saidpour A, Hosseinzadeh N, Amiri Z. Beneficial effects of apple cider vinegar on weight management, visceral adiposity index and lipid profile in overweight or obese subjects receiving restricted calorie diet: a randomized clinical trial. J Funct Foods. 2018;43:95-102.
- Cheng LJ, Jiang Y, Wu VX, Wang W. A systematic review and meta-analysis: Vinegar consumption on glycaemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Adv Nurs. 2020;76(2):459-474.
- Shishehbor F, Mansoori A, Sarkaki AR, Jalali MT, Latifi SM. Apple cider vinegar attenuates lipid profile in normal and diabetic rats. Pak J Biol Sci. 2008;11(23):2634-2638.
- Seo K-I, Lee J, Choi R-Y, et al. Anti-obesity and anti-insulin resistance effects of tomato vinegar beverage in diet-induced obese mice. Food Funct. 2014;5(7):1579-1586.
- Ok E, Do G-M, Lim Y, Park J-E, Park Y-J, Kwon O. Pomegranate vinegar attenuates adiposity in obese rats through coordinated control of AMPK signaling in the liver and adipose tissue. Lipids Health Dis. 2013;12(1):163.
- Kondo T, Kishi M, Fushimi T, Ugajin S, Kaga T. Vinegar intake reduces body weight, body fat mass, and serum triglyceride levels in obese Japanese subjects. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2009;73(8):1837-1843.
- Park JE, Kim JY, Kim J, et al. Pomegranate vinegar beverage reduces visceral fat accumulation in association with AMPK activation in overweight women: A double-blind, randomized, and placebo-controlled trial. J Funct Foods. 2014;8:274-281.
- Beheshti Z, Chan YH, Nia HS, Hajihosseini F, Nazari R. Influence of apple cider vinegar on blood lipids. Life Sci J. 2012.
- Panetta CJ, Jonk YC, Shapiro AC. Prospective randomized clinical trial evaluating the impact of vinegar on lipids in non-diabetics. World J Cardiovasc Dis. 2013;03(02):191-196.